|Quick Facts: Optometrists|
|2017 Median Pay||$110,300 per year
$53.03 per hour
|Typical Entry-Level Education||Doctoral or professional degree|
|Work Experience in a Related Occupation||None|
|Number of Jobs, 2016||40,200|
|Job Outlook, 2016-26||18% (Much faster than average)|
|Employment Change, 2016-26||7,200|
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Optometrists Career, Salary and Education Information
What Optometrists Do
Optometrists examine the eyes and other parts of the visual system. They also diagnose and treat visual problems and manage diseases, injuries, and other disorders of the eyes. They prescribe eyeglasses or contact lenses as needed.
Duties of Optometrists
Optometrists typically do the following:
Perform vision tests and analyze results
Diagnose sight problems, such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, and eye diseases, such as glaucoma
Prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other visual aids, and if state law permits, medications
Perform minor surgical procedures to correct or treat visual or eye health issues
Provide treatments such as vision therapy or low-vision rehabilitation
Provide pre- and postoperative care to patients undergoing eye surgery—for example, examining a patient’s eyes the day after surgery
Evaluate patients for the presence of other diseases and conditions, such as diabetes or hypertension, and refer patients to other healthcare providers as needed
Promote eye and general health by counseling patients
Some optometrists spend much of their time providing specialized care, particularly if they are working in a group practice with other optometrists or physicians. For example, some optometrists mostly treat patients with only partial sight, a condition known as low vision. Others may focus on treating infants and children.
Optometrists promote eye health and counsel patients on how general health can affect eyesight. For example, they may counsel patients on how quitting smoking or losing weight can reduce vision problems.
Many optometrists own their practice, and those who do may spend more time on general business activities, such as hiring employees, ordering supplies, and marketing their business.
Optometrists also may work as postsecondary teachers, do research in optometry colleges, or work as consultants in the eye care industry.
Optometrists should not be confused with ophthalmologists or opticians. Ophthalmologists are physicians who perform eye surgery and treat eye diseases in addition to performing eye exams and prescribing eyeglasses and contact lenses. For more information on ophthalmologists, see the physicians and surgeons profile. Opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses and, in some states, fill contact lens prescriptions that an optometrist or ophthalmologist has written.
Work Environment for Optometrists
Optometrists held about 40,200 jobs in 2016. The largest employers of optometrists were as follows:
Offices of optometrists: 54%
Offices of physicians: 16%
Health and personal care stores: 14%
Self-employed workers: 8%
Most optometrists work full time. Some work evenings and weekends to accommodate patients’ needs.
How to Become an Optometrist
Optometrists must complete a Doctor of Optometry (O.D.) degree program and obtain a license to practice in a particular state. O.D. programs take 4 years to complete, and most students have a bachelor’s degree before entering such a program.
Optometrists need an O.D. degree. In 2016, there were 20 accredited O.D. programs in the United States, one of which was in Puerto Rico.
Applicants to O.D. programs must have completed at least 3 years of postsecondary education. Required courses include those in biology, chemistry, physics, English, and math. Most students have a bachelor’s degree with a premedical or biological sciences emphasis before enrolling in an O.D. program.
Applicants to O.D. programs must also take the Optometry Admission Test (OAT), a computerized exam that tests applicants in four subject areas: science, reading comprehension, physics, and quantitative reasoning.
O.D. programs take 4 years to complete. They combine classroom learning and supervised clinical experience. Coursework includes anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, optics, visual science, and the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the visual system.
After finishing an O.D. degree, some optometrists complete a 1-year residency program to get advanced clinical training in the area in which they wish to specialize. Areas of specialization for residency programs include family practice, low vision rehabilitation, pediatric or geriatric optometry, and ocular disease, among others.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
All states require optometrists to be licensed. To get a license, a prospective optometrist must have an O.D. degree from an accredited optometry school and must complete all sections of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry exam.
Some states require individuals to pass an additional clinical exam or an exam on laws relating to optometry. All states require optometrists to take continuing education classes and to renew their license periodically. The board of optometry in each state can provide information on licensing requirements.
Optometrists who wish to demonstrate an advanced level of knowledge may choose to become board certified by the American Board of Optometry.
Decisionmaking skills. Optometrists must evaluate the results of a variety of diagnostic tests and decide on the best course of treatment for a patient.
Detail oriented. Optometrists must ensure that patients receive appropriate treatment and that medications and prescriptions are accurate. They must also monitor and record various pieces of information related to patient care.
Interpersonal skills. Optometrists spend most of their time examining patients, so they must be at ease interacting with patients and must make them feel comfortable during treatment.
Speaking skills. Optometrists must clearly explain eye care instructions to their patients, as well as answer patients’ questions.
salaries for Optometrists
The median annual wage for optometrists was $110,300 in May 2017. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $53,740, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $190,090.
In May 2017, the median annual wages for optometrists in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
Offices of physicians: $124,060
Health and personal care stores: $114,880
Offices of optometrists: $104,930
Most optometrists work full time. Some work evenings and weekends to accommodate their patients’ needs.
Job Outlook for optometrists
Employment of optometrists is projected to grow 18 percent from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the average for all occupations. Because vision problems tend to occur more frequently later in life, an aging population will lead to demand for optometrists. As people age, they become more susceptible to conditions that impair vision, such as cataracts and macular degeneration, and will need vision care.
The number of people with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, has grown in recent years. Diabetes has been linked to increased rates of several eye conditions, including diabetic retinopathy, a condition that affects the blood vessels in the eye and may lead to loss of vision. More optometrists will be needed to monitor, treat, and refer individuals with chronic conditions stemming from diabetes. In addition, nearly all health plans cover medical eye care and many cover preventive eye exams. More optometrists will be needed to provide services to more patients.
Because the number of optometrists is limited by the number of accredited optometry schools, licensed optometrists should expect good job prospects. Like admission to professional degree programs in other fields, admission to optometry programs is highly competitive. Students who choose to complete a residency program gain additional experience that may improve their job prospects. Board certification from the American Board of Optometry also may be viewed favorably by employers.
In addition, a large number of currently practicing optometrists are expected to retire over the coming decade, creating opportunities for new optometrists.
Employment projections data for Optometrists, 2016-26
Employment, 2016: 40,200
Projected Employment, 2026: 47,400
Change, 2016-2026: +18%, +7,200
Careers Related to optometrists
Audiologists diagnose, manage, and treat a patient’s hearing, balance, or ear problems.
Chiropractors treat patients with health problems of the neuromusculoskeletal system, which includes nerves, bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. They use spinal adjustments and manipulation, as well as other clinical interventions, to manage patients’ health concerns, such as back and neck pain.
Dental and ophthalmic laboratory technicians and medical appliance technicians construct, fit, or repair medical appliances and devices, including dentures, eyeglasses, and prosthetics.
Dentists diagnose and treat problems with patients’ teeth, gums, and related parts of the mouth. They provide advice and instruction on taking care of the teeth and gums and on diet choices that affect oral health.
Opticians help fit eyeglasses and contact lenses, following prescriptions from ophthalmologists and optometrists. They also help customers decide which eyeglass frames or contact lenses to buy.
Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat injuries or illnesses. Physicians examine patients; take medical histories; prescribe medications; and order, perform, and interpret diagnostic tests. They counsel patients on diet, hygiene, and preventive healthcare. Surgeons operate on patients to treat injuries, such as broken bones; diseases, such as cancerous tumors; and deformities, such as cleft palates.
Podiatrists provide medical and surgical care for people with foot, ankle, and lower leg problems. They diagnose illnesses, treat injuries, and perform surgery involving the lower extremities.
Veterinarians care for the health of animals and work to improve public health. They diagnose, treat, and research medical conditions and diseases of pets, livestock, and other animals.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Optometrists,
on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/optometrists.htm